Researchers confirmed that nudges, including design-based nudges, can influence behavior in intended ways. A team lead by Mertens determined via a meta-analysis that “By making small changes in our environment, these interventions [nudges] aim to encourage changes in our behaviour, while preserving our freedom of choice. From adding informative labels to reorganising the food offer in a cafeteria, the overall effectiveness of these interventions has now been demonstrated by a scientific team from the University of Geneva (UNIGE).
Design Process and Issues
Berger, Rocklage, and Packard studied the implications of communicating in different ways; their findings are broadly useful, for example, to people doing programming research. The researchers report that “Consumers often communicate their attitudes and opinions with others, and such word of mouth has an important impact on what others think, buy, and do. . . .
Walsh, Gorman, and Salmond assessed the inside of International Space Station and their methodology, reported in this free-to-all article, can also be applied in terrestrial environments. The trio report that they “offer an archaeological analysis of the visual display of ‘space heroes’ and Orthodox icons in the Russian Zvezda module of the International Space Station (ISS). . . . we use historic imagery from NASA archives to track the changing presence of 78 different items in a single zone.
How do virtual reality experiences stack up against those in the real world? Jin and colleagues report that they “investigated how participant perceptions of a single interior environment varied among a real-world space (R) and two surrogate VR spaces (one made with 360° spherical photography and one made with 360° spherical digital rendering). A total of 42 undergraduate, interior design students were randomly assigned to one of two experiments, resulting in two groups of 21 students.
Ugail and 12 others have developed a tool (more information currently available to all at the web address noted below) that can be used to redesign spaces to support pandemic-related social distancing. The team reports that “manually enhanced ad-hoc solutions have helped the physical space designers and decision makers to cope with the dynamic nature of space planning. . . . we propose a design optimization methodology which takes the dimensions, as well as the constraints and other necessary requirements of a given physical space to yield optimal redesign solutions. . . .
Newman and colleagues investigated how virtual reality realism influences potentially restorative VR experiences. They determined that “High realism VR environments provided a greater sense of presence and restoration. Realism is important, particularly for environmental restoration research. . . . Two studies were conducted to examine how realism of environmental presentations impact affective responses and participant perceptions. . . . . Study One showed that experiences of VR presentations fell between real and video presentations.
Menser and colleagues investigated what makes an image seem like it shows a nature scene. They determined that “canopies [vegetation over eight feet tall], bodies of water, and mountains were found to be highly representative of nature, whereas unnatural elements [objects and man-made structures, such as boats and walkways, respectively] and close-range views [a view focused on a singular object or small area (e.g., flowers, plants, etc.)] were inversely related.
Designing to enhance being
Willingness to pay for features
Key ideas for decoding how we think about our world