Stich used a broad definition of virtual offices to study the implications of remote work, for people who work at the office and away from it. Stich found that “Virtual offices give employees the ability to work anytime, anywhere, using information and communication technologies. . . . three threats that virtual offices create for organizations and office managers: (1) changed social relationships, (2) poorer communication, and (3) deviant behaviors. . . . [employees who remain in the office while their colleagues work remotely] tend to experience decreased job satisfaction (Golden, 2007) and poorer social interactions (Rockmann and Pratt, 2015). They also tend to experience greater work overload, as they have to deal with people who stop by the office (Yap and Tng, 1990), or because they choose to handle tasks themselves (Golden, 2007). . . . subordinates [whose manager is working remotely] left at the office experience greater work overload, poorer work climate and increased job dissatisfaction (Golden and Fromen, 2011).” The researchers recommend offices where employees can socialize and attend meetings (particularly virtual ones) as well as do focused work.
Jean-Francois Stich. “A Review of Workplace Stress in the Virtual Office.” Intelligent Buildings International, in press, DOI: 10.1080/17508975.2020.1759023