Roose and colleagues studied how the position of horizons in images influence thought processes. They report that “when consumers adopt an abstract processing style (broad perspective), they attach more weight to the advantages of a remote situation . . . and they exhibit increased moral behavior . . . and willingness to pay. . . . Consequently, for marketers engaged in fundraising, promoting long‐term beneficial products, or seeking to encourage a broad scope among consumers, their advertising stimuli should evoke abstract processing, and we reveal that it may be advisable for them to include a panoramic picture with a low horizon [relatively close to bottom of image]. . . . a concrete style of processing . . . helps people make compromises because a concrete mindset emphasizes difficulties, costs, and situational pressures. . . . For products marketed mainly as preventatives for instant difficulties or costs, marketers thus might develop panoramic advertisements with a high horizon to evoke concrete processing.” Images used to gather data were of nature scenes.
Gudrun Roose, Iris Vermeir, Maggie Geuens, and Anneleen Van Kerckhoe. 2019. “A Match Made in Heaven or Down Under? The Effectiveness of Matching Visual and Verbal Horizons in Advertising.” Journal of Consumer Psychology, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 411-427, https://doi.org/10.1002/jcpy.1088