Jiang, He, Chen, Larsen, and Wang evaluated how driving on a freeway through various sorts of urban environments influences driver experience. They found via 90-minute simulations of environments through which study participants “drove” at the legal speed limit (70–120 km/hour) that: “The summarized mental status measure is the average value of the seven measures of negative mental status (boredom, anger, frustration, tension, anxiety, avoidance, mental fatigue). . . . the tree-regularcondition evoked significantly lower levels of negative mental status than all other conditions.
Measuring sensations of safety
Research conducted at the University of Michigan indicates that people may decide to travel by car more frequently if they are using self-driving cars instead of human-piloted ones.
Research indicates that as lighting levels decrease, people drive more quickly.
Beck and teammates investigated how close cars are to bicycles being passed and their findings have implications for the design of not only roadways but also generally, for hallways within buildings, for example.
Hellinga, Mehta, and Mehran investigated how the experiences of bikers differ when there are and are not bike lanes for them to travel in.
Sullivan and Livingston report on the potential influence that roadway roundabouts (also known as rotaries) can have on society.
Bogard carefully details, in The Ground Beneath Us, how the dirt under our feet affects our lives.
Kotabe, Kardan, and Berman studied how the appeal of viewed nature is influenced by the disorder present in it.
Kuper conducted an extensive study of preference for different landscapes using color photographs of outdoor areas in New York and Pennsylvania.