Garrett and colleagues investigated links between how close people live to the coast and self-reported mental health. They determined that “Living ≤1 km from the coast was associated with better mental health for urban adults. . . . this was only among the lowest-earning households.” Also, “self-reported general health in England is higher among populations living closer to the coast, and the association is strongest amongst more deprived groups. . . . For urban adults, living ≤1 km from the coast, in comparison to >50 km, was associated with better mental health. . . . Stratification by household income revealed this was only amongst the lowest-earning households, and extended to ≤5 km.” This research supports siting homes for lower income groups relatively close to coasts, for example.
Joanne Garrett, Theodore Clitherow, Mathew White, Benedict Wheeler, and Lora Fleming. “Coastal Proximity and Mental Health Among Urban Adults in England: The Moderating Effect of Household Income.” Health and Place, in press, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthplace.2019.102200