Kim, Park, and Hong investigated links between design and nonmotorized travel (for instance, walking and biking). They learned that “nonmotorized users tend to choose more clustered destinations than motorized users. . . . Transportation networks and nonmotorized facilities [for example, bike racks] at trip destinations are especially important factors for nonmotorized mode choice.” Characteristics of potential destinations, such as net population and employment densities, mix of land uses, and length of bicycle facilities [racks] present are all positively associated with non-motorized travel; as each of them increases, so does nonmotorized travel. Also, “balanced land uses, especially between residential and nonresidential uses, seem to attract more nonmotorized trips.”
Dohyung Kim, Jiyoung Park, and Andy Hong. 2018. “The Role of Destination’s Built Environment on Nonmotorized Travel Behavior: A Case of Long Beach, California.” Journal of Planning Education and Research, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 152-166, DOI: 10.1177/0739456X16688765.