Congestion, Walking Speed (05-31-22)

Jia and colleagues studied factors influencing whether people feel crowded.  They report that their work indicates “that walking velocity depicts pedestrian perceived congestion more accurately than density. . . . the larger the gap between the desired and actual velocities, the larger the extent of the perceived congestion.” 

Xiaolu Jia, Claudio Feliciani, Hisashi Murakami, Akihito Nagahama, Daichi Yanagisawa, and Katsuhiro Nishinari.  2022. “Revisiting the Level-Of-Service Framework for Pedestrian Comfortability:  Velocity Depicts More Accurate Perceived Congestion than Local Density.” Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, vol. 87, pp. 403-425,