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Hvass and teammates investigated how lighting urban spaces influence perceptions of experiences there. They determined via a field study in public transportation waiting areas and a laboratory experiment (where one light zone simulated the same sort of waiting area and the other the surrounding urban space) that “participants perceived the atmosphere in the simulated waiting area as relaxed and private when luminance intensity was low. Furthermore, they perceived the lighting as harmonious and less glaring when luminance ratios between the waiting area and the surroundings were low.” Also, “Bright lighting allows improved perception of nearby details but may make the surrounding context appear dark and unpleasant, leading to perception of decreased safety.”  In addition, “Low contrast in lighting levels between the local space and the surrounding context increases perception of the area as relaxed and harmonious and decreases perceptions of glare. However, high luminance intensity in the surroundings increases visibility of objects in the surrounding context.”  The lighting conditions tested were described: “For the waiting area, we defined high, medium and low intensity illuminance levels as 200, 100 and 30 lux. For the surroundings, we tested high and low intensities of 20 lux and 5 lux.”  

Mette Hvass, Kevin Van Den Wymelenberg, Sebastian Boring, and Ellen Hansen.  2021.  “Intensity and Ratios of Lighting Affecting Perception of Space, Co-Presence and Surrounding Context, a Lab Experiment.”  Building and Environment, vol. 194, 107680,

Yu and colleagues probed the implications of names appearing in UPPERCASE or lowercase letters; their findings are useful to people developing signage, etc.  The Yu-lead team determined via eight experiments that “consumers perceive brands that use all uppercase letters (‘uppercase brands’) as more premium than those that use all lowercase letters (‘lowercase brands’). . . .  The effect is reversed for consumers who prefer subtle signals (‘inconspicuous consumers’) because these consumers are likely to perceive a conspicuous uppercase brand as gaudy. . . . this effect appears only for public products. . . . Public products—those with a consumption context visible to others—support identity communication in the context of socializing; private products, by contrast, are typically consumed away from the public gaze.. . . we propose that the uppercase premium effect will be contingent on the product's social visibility. For privately used products, the uppercase will lose its attention-capturing function, contributing to a null effect on consumers’ conspicuousness perceptions.”

Yining Yu, Xinyue Zhou, Lei Wang, and Qiuzhen Wang.  “Uppercase Premium Effect:  The Role of Brand Letter Case in Brand Premiumness.”  Journal of Retailing, in press,

Evidence continues to grow indicating that people who are depressed have different visual experiences than those who are not. Meuwese found that when “After viewing a stressful video, participants were randomly allocated to one of two conditions, in which they watched a video of a walk in either (1) natural, or (2) built surroundings. . . . In both experiments, participants with more (rather than less) depressive symptoms displayed more stress reduction after viewing nature rather than built settings. . . . People with more depressive symptoms benefited more from viewing nature. . . . These findings suggest that nature-based interventions may be especially beneficial among people suffering from depressive symptoms. . . .Incorporating photographs or videos of nature as a background in clinical settings that may be experienced as stressful, such as waiting rooms or therapists’ offices, could reduce stress for people suffering from depression.”  Also, “Prior research has shown that viewing natural scenery can improve mood and reduce stress.”

Daphne Meuwese, Karin Dijkstra, Jolanda Maas, and Sander Koole.  “Beating the Blues by Viewing the Green:  Depressive Symptoms Predict Greater Restoration from Stress and Negative Affect After Viewing a Nature Video.”  Journal of Environmental Psychology, in press,

Sui and colleagues have determined that different sorts of seated experiences influence our psychological wellbeing in varying ways, with, in general greater levels of sedentary behavior linked to lower wellbeing.  The team reports that via a literature review they found that “most studies demonstrated a weak, detrimental association between indices of SB [sedentary behavior] and outcomes of hedonic well-being . . . device-based SB was either weakly and negatively related or unrelated to hedonic well-being outcomes. . . . relationships between self-reported SB and outcomes of well-being are unclear. . . . screen time demonstrated a weak consistently detrimental association with hedonic well-being outcomes. . . . greater levels of SB/physical inactivity/screen time than is typical for an individual may predict lower positive affect, greater negative affect, and lower life satisfaction, independent of physical activity.” Not all sorts of sedentary behavior have the same implications; spending sedentary time mingling with others or reading, for example, was tied to higher levels of hedonic wellbeing.  As the researchers point out, “Subjective well-being (SWB) holds positive implications for an individual's self-rated and objective health. . . . outcomes of hedonic well-being  [include] affect [positive moods], [greater] life satisfaction.” Subjective wellbeing is an individual’s impression of their own quality of life.  Sedentary behavior could take place while sitting, lying down or reclining.  

Wuyou Sui, Anna Sui, and Harry Prapavessis.  2021. “Relationships Between Indices of Sedentary Behavior and Hedonic Well-Being:  A Scoping Review.”  Psychology of Sport and Exercise, vol. 54, 101920,

Sabiniewicz directed a research team that found that adding scents to virtual reality experiences may affect how pleasant they seem.  The group determined via a project during which “participants were divided into three groups, including two experimental virtual reality (VR) environments [still scenes]: a rose garden, an orange basket, and a control condition. In each VR condition, participants were exposed to a rose odor, an orange odor, or no odor. . . Virtual scenarios tended to be remembered as more pleasant when presented with congruent odors [i.e., rose odor with the rose garden]. . . . in the case of rose odor, the VR scenario in both sessions tended to be rated as more pleasant in congruent condition than in incongruent condition, while for orange odor, this effect was not found. . . . odors presented in congruent and incongruent conditions possibly modulate the pleasantness of VR scenarios but do not make them more memorable.”

Agnieszka Sabiniewicz, Elena Schaefer, Guducu Cagdas, Cedric Manesse, Moustafa Bensafi, Nadejda Krasteva, Gabriele Nelles, and Thomas Hummell.  2021.  “Smells Influence Perceived Pleasantness but Not Memorization of a Visual Virtual Environment.”  I-Perception, vol. 12, no. 2,

Physical and other concerns related to birthing suite design were studied by Carlsson, Larsson, and Jormfeldt.  Their literature review reports “a need to create a space for childbirth underpinned by four aspects; a homely space, a spiritual space, a safe space, and a territorial space. . . . A homely space was characterized by a place where the woman didn´t have to adapt to the environment. . . . In essence, a homely space contributed to a feeling of being at home, a non-threatening, comfortable relaxing space for the women, which implied a sense of belonging. . . . A spiritual space was a place where the woman could withdraw, that was peaceful, calm and silent, a nice place to be in. . . . A safe space was a major consideration for the women regardless of where birth took place. . . . Safety was conceptualized as both physical and emotional safety.”

Ina-Marie Carlsson, Ingrid Larsson, and Henrika Jormfeldt.  2020.  “Place and Space in Relation to Childbirth:  A Critical Interpretive Synthesis.”  International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being, vol. 15 (suppl. 1), 1667143,

Van Nes applied space syntax principles at the city level.  He found that “shop owners always search for an optimal location to reach as many customers as possible. If the accessibility to this optimal location is affected by changes in a city’s road and street structure, it will affect the location pattern of shops. . . .  how an inner ring road is connected to and the type of the street network it is imposed upon dictates the resulting location pattern of shops. Shops locate and relocate themselves along the most spatially-integrated streets. . . . Even though the road engineers are acting on the behalf of the government, their proposed solutions are making the necessary spatial framework for the socio-economic life in built environments. It all depends on how new road-links segregate, integrate, connect, or disconnect the urban areas they are imposed upon. It all depends on various degrees of spatial integration, connectivity, and accessibility.”

Akkelies van Nes. 2021.  “The Impact of the Ring Roads on the Location Pattern of Shops in Town and City Centres.  A Space Syntax Approach.”  Sustainability, vol. 13, no. 7,

In cooperation with a research team at the Technical University of Munich, Stora Enso has released a white paper detailing health and wellbeing benefits of living and working in spaces with wood design elements. It is available free of charge at the web address noted below.  Research indicates, for example, that “wood has beneficial effects. . . . It helps reduce stress, blood pressure and heart rate as well as allowing for more creativity and productivity in the workplace.  Wood is also an important part of what’s called biophilic design; our desire to be connected with the natural environment.”

Stora Enso. 2020.  “10 Reasons Why Wooden Buildings Are Good for You and the Scientific Research to Back It Up,”

Hodzic and colleagues studied the implications of moving into an activity-based workplace (which the researchers refer to as “activity-based flexible offices”).  The researchers determined that “moving to the A-FO had negative effects on distraction, work engagement, job satisfaction, and fatigue. The negative effects of distraction were more pronounced in situations of increased time pressure and unpredictability. . . . . the results highlight the importance of having quiet zones for concentrated work to avoid distractions.”  Important information on the older and newer workplaces: “employees moved from the old office to a new flexible ‘activity-based’ office with desk sharing. In the new ‘activity-based’ office the employees had meeting rooms and telephone booths but no special zones for concentrated work were provided. The old office was a mix between the small open office and small to medium conventional offices where employees shared the office with 2–3 people. In the old office, some employees (mostly leaders) had their own room, and some of them kept their own offices even after this transition. Therefore, we focused solely on employees without leadership positions.”

Sabina Hodzic, Bettina Kubicek, Lars Uhlig and Christian Korunka. 2021.  “Activity-Based Flexible Offices:  Effects on Work-Related Outcomes in a Longitudinal Study.”  Ergonomics, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 455-473,

Mahmoudzadeh and teammates add to the literature linking worker lighting control and workplace experiences.  The group found that when participants took part in a 3-phased experiment with immersive virtual environments (IVEs).  . . . The results of the research revealed that an energy efficient interactive lighting system that gave the participants a perception of control satisfied the participants in terms of lighting the same as a conventional lighting system that gave them full control. . . .   findings suggested that the participants were significantly less satisfied with fully automated lighting system in contrast to conventional lighting system or interactive lighting system. . . . The significance of this study lies in demonstrating that satisfaction can be achieved by giving the occupants a perception of control over semi-automated energy-efficient building systems.”

Parisa Mahmoudzadeh, Yasemin Afacan, and Mohamad Adi. “Analyzing Occupants’ Control Over Lighting Systems in Office Settings Using Immersive Virtual Environments.”  Building and Environment, in press, 107823,


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