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Barone, Coulter, and Li determined that where prices are marked (their vertical position) determines how that price is perceived. The researchers asked: “Can changing the vertical location of a price (e.g., presenting it above or below a product image in an advertisement or retail display) influence consumer response? . . .  several lab and field investigations [conducted by the Barone-lead team] demonstrate that prices provided in low (vs. high) locations lead to lower price perceptions, more favorable purchase intentions, and higher in-store sales. . . . such price location effects . . .  arise only among individuals who associate down with less and up with more. . . . low price locations can also induce consumers to perceive a product as being less costly without adversely affecting quality perceptions. . . . firms can improve consumer response simply by showing prices at the bottom (vs. top) of a focal product in a marketing stimulus.”

Michael Barone, Keith Coulter, and Xingbo Li. 2020.  “The Upside of Down:  Presenting a Price in a Low or High Location Influences How Consumers Evaluate it.”  Journal of Retailing, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 397-410,

Tian, Chen, and Hu looked at appropriate levels of circadian stimulus (CS) by age.  They determined that “the effect of the CS increased with CCT from 4000 K to 8000 K at the same age as a general trend; however, the CCT of 2700 K shows a higher circadian impact compared to that of 4000 K for the same age groups. . . . In order to provide sufficient CS, the minimum corneal illuminance for children and elderly is 250 lx and 380 lx, respectively, when the CCT of the light source was 2700 K. The minimum corneal illuminance for children and elderly is 150 lx and 420 lx, respectively, when the CCT of the light source was 8000 K. In order to avoid activation of the circadian system, the maximum corneal illuminance for children and elderly is 30 lx and 48 lx, respectively, when the CCT of the light source is 2700 K. The maximum corneal illuminance for children and elderly is 36 lx and 145 lx, respectively, when the CCT of the light source is 4000 K.”  These findings can be used to develop lighting plans, for example.

H. Tian, T. Chen, and Y. Hu.  2021.  “Change of Circadian Effect with Colour Temperature and Eye Spectral Transmittance at Different Ages.”  Lighting Research and Technology, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 41-53,

Finnish researchers studied how seasonal sunlight variations influence mood.  Their findings, published in The Journal of Neuroscience,are useful in a variety of contexts, for example, for better understanding research data collected.  The investigators report that “the length of daylight affects the opioid receptors, which in turn regulates the mood we experience. Seasons have an impact on our emotions and social life. Negative emotions are more subdued in the summer, whereas seasonal affective disorder rates peak during the darker winter months. Opioids regulate both mood and sociability in the brain. In the study conducted at the Turku PET Centre, Finland, researchers compared how the length of daylight hours affected the opioid receptors in humans and rats. . . . On the basis of the results, the duration of daylight is a particularly critical factor in the seasonal variation of opioid receptors.”

“Seasonal Variation in Daylight Influences Brain Function.”  2021.  Press release, University of Turku.

Research has shown that how human-like a robot appears to be influences how we think about what those robots do.  Researchers lead by Laakasuo determined that when “study participants read short narratives where either a robot, a somewhat humanoid robot known as iRobot, a robot with a strong humanoid appearance called iClooney or a human being encounters a moral problem along the lines of the trolley dilemma, making a specific decision. The participants were also shown images of these agents, after which they assessed the morality of their decisions. . . . The trolley dilemma is a problem where a person sees a trolley careening on the tracks, without anyone in control, towards five people. The person can either do nothing or turn the trolley onto another track, saving the five people but killing another individual on the other track. According to the study, people consider the choice made by the humanoid iRobot and iClooney less ethically sound than the same decision made by a human and a robot with a traditional robot-like appearance.”

Michael Laakasuo, Tuire Korvuo, and Niina Niskanen.  2021. “The Appearance of Robots Affects Our Perception of the Morality of Their Decisions.”  Press release, University of Helsinki,


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