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People who design public spaces where crowding can be an issue will be intrigued by the findings of a new paper published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B (and available free of charge here: https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2021.2089). A related press release reports that “A new model . . . takes the point of view of an individual crowd member, and is remarkably accurate at predicting actual crowd flow, its developers say. The model . . . illustrates the role of visual perception in crowd movement. It shows how crowd members who are visible from a participant’s viewpoint determine how that participant follows the crowd and what path they take. . . . findings from case studies like this could be extrapolated to other situations in which people or animals unconsciously coordinate their behavior — such as on social media. . . . In both situations, there is the same strong tendency for a person to imitate others around them. . . . [but] when one group starts to diverge too much from a person’s current ‘direction,’ the person will reject that group and follow another group moving in a less divergent direction.”
“Seen and ‘Herd’: Collective Motion in Crowds is largely Determined by Participants’ Field of Vision.” 2022. Press release, Brown University, https://www.brown.edu/news/2022-03-21/flocking
Work by a research team lead by Van Den Eeden provides additional evidence that living near green spaces is good for our health. The team reports that they “sought to determine if residential green cover was also associated with direct healthcare costs. We linked residential Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) satellite data for 5,189,303 [people] . . . to direct individual healthcare costs for 2003–2015. . . . we examined the association between direct healthcare costs and green cover within 250, 500, and 1000 meters (m) of an individual’s residence. . . . We observed a significant inverse association between higher levels of residential green cover and lower direct healthcare costs. The relative rate of total cost for the highest compared to the lowest decile of NDVI was 0.92 . . . for the 500 m buffer. . . . Individuals in the top decile of residential green cover had adjusted healthcare costs of $374.04 . . . per person per year less than individuals living in the bottom or least green decile.”
Stephen Van Den Eeden, Matthew Browning, Douglas Becker, Jun Shan, Stacey Alexeeff, G. Ray, Charles Quesenberry, and Ming Kuo. 2022. “Association Between Residential Green Cover and Direct Healthcare Costs in Northern California: An Individual Level Analysis of 5 Million Persons.” Environment International, vol. 163, 107174, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2022.107174
Research indicates that urban design is affecting neighborhood temperatures. A study conducted in Australia by Rouhollahi, Boland, and others determined that “New housing subdivisions, smaller yards and a dependence on air conditioning have resulted in a 30 per cent decline in Australian residential trees in the past decade, leading to hotter neighbourhoods and increased energy costs.”
“Neighbourhoods Feeling the Heat as Medium Density Housing Robs Suburbs of Street and Garden Trees.” 2022. Press release, University of South Australia, https://www.unisa.edu.au/media-centre/Releases/2022/neighbourhoods-feeli...
A recent study confirms the negative health effects of noise exposure and supports the use of sound insulation. Avel Moreyra lead a study that determined that “People experiencing high levels of noise from cars, trains or planes were more likely to suffer a heart attack. . . . Patients were divided into those experiencing high levels of transportation noise (an average of 65 decibels or higher over the course of the day) and those with low noise exposure (a daily average of less than 50 decibels). A noise level of 65 decibels is similar to a loud conversation or laughter. Since noise levels were averaged over the course of the day, Moreyra said that many people may have experienced periods of relative quiet that were interrupted by louder bursts such as trucks, trains or aircraft going by. Overall results found that 5% of hospitalizations for heart attacks were attributable to elevated high noise levels in the state. The heart attack rate was 72% higher in places with high transportation noise exposure.”
“Living Near Noise Pollution Tied to Greater Risk of Heart Attack.” 2022. Press release, American College of Cardiology, https://www.acc.org/About-ACC/Press-Releases/2022/03/22/19/59/Living-Nea...
Svanas-Hoh, Sanchez, and Tsay evaluated how mood influences evaluations of music; their findings can likely be extended to other situations in which assessments are made. The team reports that “Across two studies, participants . . . listened to a recital (set) of six pieces and provided moment-to-moment evaluations of emotional intensity, as well as global REs [retrospective evaluations] of the pieces and the entire set. Trend was manipulated (between-subjects) by ordering pieces by increasing (Low-High) or decreasing (High- Low) emotional intensity. The peak-end did not contribute substantially to REs for individual pieces. REs of the recital relied on averages of global ratings of individual pieces rather than momentary affect. . . . The Low-High group produced higher REs of emotional intensity than the High-Low group, demonstrating a trend effect. The average is proposed as the most appropriate predictor for REs in affective—including musical—experiences, with overweighting of certain moments based on memorability (rather than the peak-end).”
Emily Svanas-Hoh, Janice Sanchez, and Chia-Jung Tsay. “How Momentary Affect Impacts Retrospective Evaluations of Musical Experiences.” Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, in press, https://doi.org/10.1037/aca0000474
Research conducted by Lemon, Li, and Ali confirms that there are significant connections between our sensory experiences; their study is published in The Journal of Neuroscience. A related press release reports that “If you have eaten a chili pepper, you have likely felt how your body reacts to the spicy hot sensation. New research published by biologists at the University of Oklahoma shows that the brain categorizes taste, temperature and pain-related sensations in a common region of the brain. The researchers suggest the brain also groups these sensations together as either pleasant or aversive, potentially offering new insights into how scientists might better understand the body’s response to and treatment of pain. . . . The researchers categorize preferred or pleasurable tastes as something sweet, like sugar, whereas adverse tastes are bitter – which can signify that something may be toxic or harmful. Similarly, people, and mice, have preferred temperatures, like a comfortably warmed or cooled environment as compared to an extreme cold or extreme heat stimulus.”
“Taste, Temperature and Pain Sensations Are Neuroligically Linked, OU Study Finds.” 2022. Press release, University of Oklahoma, https://ou.edu/research-norman/news-events/2022/taste-temperature-and-pa...
Living near a green area has been linked to less likelihood of having a stroke. Researchers report that “The risk of suffering an ischaemic stroke, the most common type of cerebrovascular event, is 16% less in people who have green spaces less than 300 metres from their homes. . . . The study took into account information on exposure to three atmospheric pollutants linked to vehicle traffic. . . . The results indicate a direct relationship between increased levels of NO2 in the atmosphere and the risk of ischaemic stroke. For every increase of 10 micrograms (µg) per cubic metre, this risk increases by 4%. The same happens when PM2.5 levels increase by 5 µg/m3. In the case of soot particles, the risk increases by 5% for every 1 µg/m3 increase in the atmosphere. These figures are the same for the entire population, irrespective of other socio-economic factors, age or smoking habits.” Chemical concentrations were also measured at residences.
“Living Near Green Areas Reduces the Risk of Suffering a Stroke by 16%” 2022. Press release, Institut Hospital del Mar d’Investigacions Mediques, https://www.imim.cat/news/469/living-near-green-areas-reduces-the-risk-of-suffering-a-stroke-by-16
A recent study indicates that we respond differently to material presented on paper than on digital devices. Allen shares that “research by Maferima Toure-Tillery [co-author Lili Wang]. . . finds that people are more likely to engage in virtuous behavior when they make their selections on paper than when they are using a digital device. . . Their study, which was conducted in both the U.S. and China, shows that the effect extends to several types of virtuous behavior, from charitable giving to choosing educational reading material over page turners. ‘People are more virtuous on paper than on a digital device,’ Touré-Tillery explains. ‘And we find the reason for that is that they see what they do on paper as more real and thus as more consequential for how they think about themselves and for maintaining a positive image of themselves.’”
Susie Allen. 2022. “We React Differently to Paper vs. Digital Requests.” KelloggInsight, https://insight.kellogg.northwestern.edu/article/paper-vs-digital-reques...
Beracci and Fabbri studied how time is perceived to map onto physical locations; their findings may be useful to people trying to understand research findings, for example. The investigators report that prior research has shown that “Time is represented along a horizontal mental line with an association between the past (or short duration) and left space as well as between the future (or long duration) and right space. . . . The aim of the present study was to test the presence of a vertical representation of temporal expressions, overcoming possible methodological limits. . . . In both experiments [Beracci and Fabbri conducted], a space–time interaction was found, with an association between past expressions and the bottom (or down arrow) response key as well as between future expressions and the top (or up arrow) key. The results suggest a bottom-to-top mapping of time representation, according to the ‘more-is-up’ metaphor.”
Alessia Beracci and Marco Fabbri. “Past on the Ground Floor and Future in the Attic: The Vertical Mental Timeline.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, in press, https://doi.org/10.1037/xhp0000988
Maister and colleagues learned how subjective our assessments of our own faces and bodies are; their findings can likely be applied in other situations in which assessments are made. The researchers report that they “used a computational reverse-correlation technique to explore individuals’ mental ‘self-portraits’ of their faces and body shapes in an unbiased, data-driven way. . . . Self-portraits were similar to individuals’ real faces but, importantly, also contained clues to each person’s self-reported personality traits, which were reliably detected by external observers. . . . . Unlike face portraits, body portraits had negligible relationships with individuals’ actual body shape, but as with faces, they were influenced by people’s beliefs and emotions. We show how psychological beliefs and attitudes about oneself bias the perceptual representation of one’s appearance.”
Lara Maister, Sophie De Beukelaer, Matthew Longo, and Manos Tsakiris. 2021. “The Self in the Mind’s Eye: Revealing How We Truly See Ourselves Through Reverse Correlation.” Psychological Science, vol. 32, no. 12, pp. 1965-1978, https://doi.org/10.1177/09567976211018618