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Steelcase conducted a pediatric healthcare-related literature review and developed design principles that can be used in a variety of spaces, from waiting areas to exam rooms.  Via the literature review, Steelcase determined that in pediatric healthcare settings “engaging young patients in their surrounding environment can help minimize anxiety and promote a sense of calm. Exploration provides choices, and choices provide a sense of control. . . . Children need movement and sensory experiences to reduce stress. . . . Children need environments tailored to their abilities and ages.” The design principles developed include: “Encourage play and positive distraction. . . . Activity zones should be tailored to different ages, abilities and characteristics. . . . Incorporate natural elements. . . . biophilic design can also suggest or reflect nature in more subtle ways. For example, floor tiles that mimic the flow of a river and nature-inspired artwork can provide wayfinding as well as wellbeing benefits. . . . creating a variety of settings within a larger area can meet needs for both privacy and community. . . .  flexibility is a value-add for the patient experience as well as the organization.”

Steelcase.  2022. “Designing Effective Pediatric Care Spaces.”  https://www.steelcase.com/research/articles/topics/healthcare/designing-effective-pediatric-care-spaces/?utm_term=pediatric-health-article&utm_campaign=health&utm_medium=email&_hsmi=212623031&_hsenc=p2ANqtz--kd-X2hMe_ggqVD6ejXpYduA1AqDr6b2roTMEVgNI1YxyZ7vaezW8u1xaWBoieWRwJD8tfBKHfZabe0NjLqUv4XbJvpQ&utm_content=360-biweekly-may-10&utm_source=hubspot

Radun and colleagues investigated the effects of impulsive sound on cognitive performance.  They report that “Exposure to impulsive sound (65 dB LAeq) was compared with quiet sound (35 dB LAeq) and steady-state sound (65 dB LAeq). . . . Compared to quiet sound, impulsive sound caused more annoyance, workload, and lack of energy, raised cortisol concentrations, reduced systolic blood pressure, and decreased accuracy. . . . Compared with steady-state sound, impulsive sound was experienced as more annoying and causing a higher workload and more lack of energy. Impulsive sound caused physiological and psychological stress and decreased performance compared to quiet sound. . . . Impulsive sound . . . involves strong onsets, i.e., rapid elevations of the sound level, and a release of sound right after the impulse has reached its maximum. . . . examples in everyday life are walking, door sounds, ball games, keyboard tapping, and hammering.”  Physiological stress was determined via concentrations of stress hormones, heart rate variability, and blood pressure readings.

Jenni Radun, Henna Maula, Ville Rajala, Mika Scheinin, and Valtteri Hongisto.  “Acute Stress Effects of Impulsive Noise During Mental Work.”  Journal of Environmental Psychology, in press, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2022.101819

Jia and colleagues studied factors influencing whether people feel crowded.  They report that their work indicates “that walking velocity depicts pedestrian perceived congestion more accurately than density. . . . the larger the gap between the desired and actual velocities, the larger the extent of the perceived congestion.” 

Xiaolu Jia, Claudio Feliciani, Hisashi Murakami, Akihito Nagahama, Daichi Yanagisawa, and Katsuhiro Nishinari.  2022. “Revisiting the Level-Of-Service Framework for Pedestrian Comfortability:  Velocity Depicts More Accurate Perceived Congestion than Local Density.” Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, vol. 87, pp. 403-425, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trf.2022.04.007

The Center for Health Design is providing free, at the web address noted below, an interactive rendering highlighting key research that can be applied during the design of treatment rooms in emergency departments.  As noted on the website on which the diagram appears, “Two goals are often at the center of current care models for mental or behavioral health: safety and healing. In the Emergency Department, design has traditionally focused on safety for both patients and staff through checklists for ligature-resistance. Newer approaches place a strong emphasis on healing, as well, resulting in a therapeutic approach for a more flexible use of a Treatment Room.  Each organization will need to balance priorities to meet specific performance standards and anticipated patient acuity to establish an appropriate solution. Some organizations may decide on a universal approach - the design must be flexible enough to accommodate a range of patient acuity, including those who may be experiencing behavioral or mental health issues. Generally, the evidence base for design of the Therapeutic ED Treatment Room focuses on deinstitutionalized design aesthetic that provides a sense of being both welcoming and safe.”  A chart at the website noted below provides information on design elements tied to the rendering (i.e., layout-within room, layout-room location, flooring, walls, ceiling, windows, doors, plumbing/sink/alcohol gel dispenser, HVAC, electrical, lighting, furniture, casework/storage, and technology/internet communication/monitoring equipment) such as related specific desirable outcomes (for example, minimizing stigma or patient stress/anxiety), design strategies, and pertinent references.

For image:  https://www.healthdesign.org/tools/interactive-design-diagrams/outpatient-ambulatory-care-rooms/therapeutic-ed-treatment-room#design-element—6

For chart: https://www.healthdesign.org/sites/all/themes/chd2015/donghia/Therapeutic%20ED%20Treatment%20Room_Outcomes_Strategies.pdf

Sorokowska and colleagues investigated how personal space preferences influenced COVID-19’s spread; interpersonal spacing is a core environmental psychology research area.  The Sorokowska-lead team report that “it was explored if interpersonal distance preferences . . . were valid measures of physical distancing in contacts between strangers and whether they related to country-level variation in early dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 spread. The analysis, based on aggregated data from more than 9,000 participants, showed that variation in early dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 spread (i.e., total number of SARS-CoV-2 cases 20 days after the 100th case) was . . . significantly and negatively related to the preferred interpersonal distance between strangers.”

Agnieszka Sorokowska, Supreet Saluja, Konstantinos Kafetsios, and Ilona Croy.  2022. “Interpersonal Distancing Preferences, Touch Behaviors to Strangers, and Country-Level Early Dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 Spread.”  American Psychologist, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 124-134, https://doi.org/10.1037/amp0000919

Researchers from the University of Exeter have identified some benefits of playing outdoors and their findings can be used to encourage the development and maintenance of outdoor play areas for children.  The investigators report, in a study published in Child Psychiatry and Human Development, that “children who spend more time playing outside had fewer ‘internalising problems’ – characterised as anxiety and depression. Those children were also more positive during the first lockdown. . . . results were consistent even after researchers factored in a wide range of demographic variables including child sex, age, parent employment status etc. and parent mental health.  The study in the Great Britain group also found that the effect was more pronounced in children from lower income families than those growing up in higher income households.”

“Children Who Play Adventurously Have Better Mental Health, Research Finds.”  2022.  Press release, University of Exeter, https://www.exeter.ac.uk/news/research/title_912650_en.html

Some hotels benefit more from installing electric vehicle charging stations that others.  Qian and Zhang share that “Using evidence from monthly revenue data of 2,774 hotels in Texas of United States (US) between 2015 and 2018, this paper quantifies the economic benefits of hotels hosting Tesla’s charging facilities and finds that nearby attractions amplify the benefits. . . . The findings reveal that upscale hotels benefit more than luxury as well as mid-price and cheaper hotels from hosting Tesla charging facilities. After Tesla introduced the Model 3, these benefits increased for upscale hotels but decreased for luxury hotels. These findings have important implications for the hospitality and tourism industries to better adapt to the emerging EV transition.”

Lixian Qian and Cheng Zhang.  “Complementary or Congruent?  The Effect of Hosting Tesla Charging Stations on Hotels’ Revenue.”  Journal of Travel Research, in press. https://doi.org/10.1177/00472875221093017

Brochu and collaborators studied links between how green an area is and the death rates of residents.  They “conducted a nationwide [in the United States] quantitative health impact assessment to estimate the predicted reduction in mortality associated with an increase in greenness across two decades (2000, 2010, and 2019). Using a recently published exposure-response function, Landsat 30 m 16-day satellite imagery from April to September, and publicly available county-level mortality data from the CDC, we calculated the age-adjusted reduction in all-cause mortality for those 65 years and older within 35 of the most populated metropolitan areas. We estimated that between 34,000 and 38,000 all-cause deaths could have been reduced in 2000, 2010, and 2019 with a local increase in green vegetation by 0.1 unit across the most populated metropolitan areas. We found that overall greenness increased across time with a 2.86% increase from 2000 to 2010 to 11.11% from 2010 to 2019.”

Paige Brochu, Marcia Jimenez, Peter James, Patrick Kinney, and Kevin Lane.  2022. “Benefits of Increasing Greenness on All-Cause Mortality in the Largest Metropolitan Areas of the United States Within the Past Two Decades.”  Frontiers in Public Health, vol. 10, 841936, https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2022.841936

Some researchers are suggesting that smell and taste be considered one sensory channel, not two.  A paper to be published in The Quarterly Review of Biology written by Mollo and 14 colleagues “proposes the unification of all chemosensory modalities into a single sense. . . . The paper thus envisages a rupture with what emerges as one of the most deeply rooted confirmation biases in the scientific literature: the differentiation between gustation (taste) and olfaction (smell). . . . ‘The time has come to abandon the differentiation between the chemical senses and start asking better questions about the complex, nuanced, and interconnected manners by which a vast variety of chemicals have become signals crucially important to survival,’ the authors write.”

“Should All Chemosensory Modalities Be Unified Into a Single Sense?”  2022.  Press release, The University of Chicago Press Journals, https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/journals/qrb/pr/220509

An exhibit at the Museum of Craft and Design (San Francisco; February 12 to June 5, 2022, “Living with Scents”) focuses on scent-based experiences.  The show’s website reports that “researchers and practitioners, from the neurosciences to the humanities, have strived to gain a better understanding of the sense of smell, which deeply, yet often unknowingly, shapes the way we live: our eating habits, our social interactions, our emotions, memories, and even our well-being and safety. . . . scents may thus be purposefully used to improve many aspects of our lives. . . . In the hands of contemporary designers, whose job it is to consider the interactions of minds, bodies, and things, scents are mediated in innovative ways to raise a form of new sensory awareness. . . . Working with and around the sense of smell, taking into account its neurobiological, historical, social, and aesthetic specificities, these practitioners [whose works are being presented] attempt to change the way we relate to and interact with the world.”

https://sfmcd.org/exhibitions/living-with-scents/

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