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Research conducted by Lemon, Li, and Ali confirms that there are significant connections between our sensory experiences; their study is published in The Journal of Neuroscience.  A related press release reports that “If you have eaten a chili pepper, you have likely felt how your body reacts to the spicy hot sensation. New research published by biologists at the University of Oklahoma shows that the brain categorizes taste, temperature and pain-related sensations in a common region of the brain. The researchers suggest the brain also groups these sensations together as either pleasant or aversive, potentially offering new insights into how scientists might better understand the body’s response to and treatment of pain. . . . The researchers categorize preferred or pleasurable tastes as something sweet, like sugar, whereas adverse tastes are bitter – which can signify that something may be toxic or harmful. Similarly, people, and mice, have preferred temperatures, like a comfortably warmed or cooled environment as compared to an extreme cold or extreme heat stimulus.”

“Taste, Temperature and Pain Sensations Are Neuroligically Linked, OU Study Finds.”  2022.  Press release, University of Oklahoma,

Living near a green area has been linked to less likelihood of having a stroke.  Researchers report that “The risk of suffering an ischaemic stroke, the most common type of cerebrovascular event, is 16% less in people who have green spaces less than 300 metres from their homes. . . . The study took into account information on exposure to three atmospheric pollutants linked to vehicle traffic. . . . The results indicate a direct relationship between increased levels of NO2 in the atmosphere and the risk of ischaemic stroke. For every increase of 10 micrograms (µg) per cubic metre, this risk increases by 4%. The same happens when PM2.5 levels increase by 5 µg/m3. In the case of soot particles, the risk increases by 5% for every 1 µg/m3 increase in the atmosphere. These figures are the same for the entire population, irrespective of other socio-economic factors, age or smoking habits.” Chemical concentrations were also measured at residences.

“Living Near Green Areas Reduces the Risk of Suffering a Stroke by 16%”  2022.  Press release, Institut Hospital del Mar d’Investigacions Mediques,

A recent study indicates that we respond differently to material presented on paper than on digital devices.  Allen shares that “research by Maferima Toure-Tillery  [co-author Lili Wang]. . . finds that people are more likely to engage in virtuous behavior when they make their selections on paper than when they are using a digital device. . . Their study, which was conducted in both the U.S. and China, shows that the effect extends to several types of virtuous behavior, from charitable giving to choosing educational reading material over page turners. ‘People are more virtuous on paper than on a digital device,’ Touré-Tillery explains. ‘And we find the reason for that is that they see what they do on paper as more real and thus as more consequential for how they think about themselves and for maintaining a positive image of themselves.’”

Susie Allen.  2022.  “We React Differently to Paper vs. Digital Requests.”  KelloggInsight,

Beracci and Fabbri studied how time is perceived to map onto physical locations; their findings may be useful to people trying to understand research findings, for example.  The investigators report that prior research has shown that “Time is represented along a horizontal mental line with an association between the past (or short duration) and left space as well as between the future (or long duration) and right space. . . . The aim of the present study was to test the presence of a vertical representation of temporal expressions, overcoming possible methodological limits. . . . In both experiments [Beracci and Fabbri conducted], a space–time interaction was found, with an association between past expressions and the bottom (or down arrow) response key as well as between future expressions and the top (or up arrow) key. The results suggest a bottom-to-top mapping of time representation, according to the ‘more-is-up’ metaphor.”

Alessia Beracci and Marco Fabbri.  “Past on the Ground Floor and Future in the Attic:  The Vertical Mental Timeline.”  Journal of Experimental Psychology:  Human Perception and Performance, in press,

Maister and colleagues learned how subjective our assessments of our own faces and bodies are; their findings can likely be applied in other situations in which assessments are made.  The researchers report that they “used a computational reverse-correlation technique to explore individuals’ mental ‘self-portraits’ of their faces and body shapes in an unbiased, data-driven way. . . . Self-portraits were similar to individuals’ real faces but, importantly, also contained clues to each person’s self-reported personality traits, which were reliably detected by external observers. . . . . Unlike face portraits, body portraits had negligible relationships with individuals’ actual body shape, but as with faces, they were influenced by people’s beliefs and emotions. We show how psychological beliefs and attitudes about oneself bias the perceptual representation of one’s appearance.”

Lara Maister, Sophie De Beukelaer, Matthew Longo, and Manos Tsakiris.  2021. “The Self in the Mind’s Eye:  Revealing How We Truly See Ourselves Through Reverse Correlation.”  Psychological Science, vol. 32, no. 12, pp. 1965-1978,

Lee and Lim tie visual experiences to anticipated tastes.  They report that their “study examines the effects on viewers’ purchase intention of two visual design techniques used with food items in food advertising – repetition and alignment. . . . Three studies were conducted. . . . The findings of Study 1 and Study 2 reveal that repetition of food items enhanced viewers’ likelihood of purchasing the presented food through cross-modal responses between vision and taste. . . .  results . . . confirm . . . cross-modal correspondences between vision and taste when individuals process a food image.”

Jinha Lee and Heejin Lim.  2022. “Design Matters:  Cross-Modal Correspondences Between Vision and Taste in Food Advertising.”  Journal of Marketing Communications, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 132-151, https:/

He and teammates link goodness and facial attractiveness;  it is possible that their findings can be applied more broadly.  The team report that “A well-documented ‘beauty is good’ stereotype is expressed in the expectation that physically attractive people have more positive characteristics. Recent evidence has also found that unattractive faces are associated with negative character inferences. . . This study tested the hypothesis that complementary ‘good is beautiful” and “bad is ugly” stereotypes bias aesthetic judgments. . . . this . . . study examined whether moral character influences perceptions of attractiveness for different ages and sexes of faces. Compared to faces paired with nonmoral vignettes, those paired with prosocial vignettes were rated significantly more attractive, confident, and friendlier. The opposite pattern characterized faces paired with antisocial vignettes. . . . Moral transgressions affected attractiveness more negatively for younger than older faces. Sex-related differences were not detected. These results suggest information about moral character affects our judgments about facial attractiveness. Better (worse) people are considered more (less) attractive.”

Dexlan He, Clifford Workman, Xianyou He, and Anjan Chatterjee.  “What Is Good Is Beautiful (And What Isn’t, Isn’t):  How Moral Character Affects Perceived Facial Attractiveness.”  Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and The Arts, in press,

Asano and colleagues learned that walking in hot outdoor environments can harm subsequent cognitive performance indoors;  this finding supports creating more temperature controlled indoor walking areas in office complexes and similar locations.  The research team reports that “In the experiments [conducted], a total of 96 participants took a mathematical addition test in an air-conditioned room before and after walking in an actual outdoor environment. Results of the experiments showed that walking outdoors under heat-stressful conditions (UTCI ≧ 44 °C) for 15 min decreased the cognitive performance (percentage of correct answers to numbers of problems solved) by 3.6% compared with that before walking. An analysis focusing on the sleep duration showed a negative relationship between sleep duration and the decrease in cognitive performance. This tendency became particularly clear among the participants whose sleep duration was less than 5 h. The reduction of cognitive performance was more pronounced in male participants than in female participants. Sleep-deprived men who walk in a heat-stressful outdoor environment are more likely to exhibit poor cognitive performance when they return to an air-conditioned room.”

Yuki Asano, Yusuke Nakamura, Asuka Suzuki-Parker, Shohei Aiba, and Hiroyuki Kusaka.  2022.  “Effect of Walking in Heat-Stressful Outdoor Environments In an Urban Setting on Cognitive Performance Indoors.”  Building and Environment, vol. 213, 108893,

Duran-Barraza and colleagues evaluated how titles influence responses to artistic photography.  They report that “Conceptual information is central to the field of artistic photography. . . . we investigated whether artist's conceptual titles affected viewers’ interest in artistic photographs. Experiment 1 showed that adding artist's conceptual titles increased both the rated liking of and interest in the photographs, whereas adding a descriptive title had no effect. For Experiment 2 participants judged the pairing of photographs with artist-generated conceptual titles as more appropriate than plausible or random pairings, supporting the view that artist's conceptual titles are an essential part of the artwork. In Experiment 3, interest was assessed by asking participants to place adjustable-size frames anywhere on the photographs. Participants selected more interest areas on photographs accompanied by conceptual titles than on those unaccompanied by titles. These findings support the hypothesis that conceptual information provided by the artist's titles increases interest and liking in photographs.”

Gabriela Duran-Barraza, Deepti Ghadiyaram, and Mary Peterson.  “Effects of Conceptual Titles on the Aesthetic Appreciation of Artistic Photographs.”  Empirical Studies of the Arts, in press,

Shen and colleagues studied responses to different sorts of advertisements along with perceived beauty.  They report that “Using 68 standardized environmental advertisements as materials, this study examines potential differences between warning-based and vision-based environmental advertisements in the induced environment-related aesthetic perception and experience. The results show a significant difference between warning-based and vision-based advertisements in the experienced beauty . . .  with no difference in (global) aesthetic perception. Specifically, the vision-based advertisements have higher ‘good’ and ‘boring’ scores than the warning-based ones, whereas the warning-based advertisements score more highly in ‘interesting,’ ‘awe,’ ‘amazing,’ and ‘inspiring’ measures than their counterparts. These findings suggest that both types of environmental advertisements trigger a similar aesthetic perception.”

Wangbing Shen, Meijiao Wang, Yuan Yuan, Halping Bai, and Meifeng Hua.  2022.  “Beauty Is Not In the Eye But In the Inner Heart:  Evidence From Environmental Advertising.”  Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 164-175,


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